Prospect of Bay Leaf (Syzygium Polyanthum) Extract in Reducing Ischemia and Inflammation in Animal Model of Myocardial Infarction: An Experimental Study
Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah
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Introduction: Bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum) was thought to have potential to treat cardiovascular disease traditionally. Myocardial Infarction (MI) characterised by sudden blockage of coronary artery due to atherosclerosis rupture and following MI, several changes could happen such as expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) 1α, immune cell infiltration, cytokine release, and fibrosis. Aim: To study the effect of bay leaf extract on HIF-1α, immune cell infiltration, IL-10 level, and fibrosis in animal model of MI. Materials and Methods: An Experimental study using animal model of MI was conducted in December 2019. Thirty two Wistar rats were surgically manipulated to have MI. Rats were then divided into two groups: treatment group (with bay leaf extract administration) and control group. Neutrophil and macrophage distribution, collagen (fibrosis) distribution, and HIF-1α expression were examined in infarcted muscle. Additionally, serum was taken to measure IL-10 level. Observation was conducted on day 1, day 4, day 7, day 14 after MI episode. Independent t-test was used to compare serum IL-10 level between groups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Lower HIF-1α expression was seen in treatment group since day 1, showing better response to ischemia. As for inflammation, decreased neutrophil distribution, increased macrophage distribution was observed in treatment group. Significant increases in IL-10 level were also noticed since day 1 in treatment group (p<0.05 in all observation day). Lower fibrosis was also noticed from day 1 in treatment group. All these effects were further seen in day 4, day 7, and day 14. Conclusion: Bay leaf extract has potential in reducing ischemia, inflammation, and cardiac fibrosis in animal model of MI.