Indonesia’s New Horizon for Sustainable Forestry : Ulayat Right Division Based on Local Wisdom in Batak Pakpak Ethnicity
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Batak Pakpak ethnicity that reside in the area of Pakpak Bharat regency, North Sumatra province, can be classified as customary law community because the whole surrounding village and forest area belong to certain clans communally which is also known by the term sukut ni talun. Sukun ni talun clan can be described as the rightful clan that possesses ulayat rights (the owner of land rights or forest area). There are dozens of clan names that have ulayat right in this area of Pakpak ethnicity, such as: Padang, Solin, Berutu, manik, Banurea, Bancin, Cibro, Sinamo, Tinendung, Sitakar, Kebeaken, Padang Batanghari, Angkat, and Lembeng among other clans. It means that every clan have a certain ulayat right which consists of designated forest area owned by the same clans collectively. Generally, the clan members in the community are well aware of ulayat right and the borders of ulayat right area with another clans. Besides getting a higher social status, the clans that own ulayat right in every area play important role in various social activities and decision makings, including the management of forest. Pakpak community who live around the forest have a strong connection with the forest in many aspects. The location of forest itself is the source of life with many daily activities. The forest becomes not only the place for farming, hunting, gathering the products such as timbers or non-timbers, but also becomes the source of inspiration to get medicinal materials. In those activities, they have certain knowledge, value and rule that are both derived from previous generations and gained from their real life experiences or other people’s outside the community. This shared knowledge in this article is called local wisdom.