Association Between SMAD3 gene rs6494629 C/T Polymorphism and Knee Osteoarthritis in Indonesian Population
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Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) risk factors include older age, obesity, physical activity, trau- ma, female gender, and genetic factors. One of the genetic factors suspected to be involved in OA development is the Sma and Mad homologue 3 (SMAD3) polymorphism. Previous studies had examined the association between SMAD3 rs6494629 C/T polymorphism and risk of knee OA, unfortunately the results were controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SMAD3 rs6494629 C/T polymorphism and knee OA in Medan, Indonesia. Methods. This study w as a case control study on 80 consecutive OA patients and 100 healthy controls recruited from Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. The diagnosis of knee OA was confirmed by clinical examination and knee radiographs, which fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Only patients with Kellgren–Lawrence (K-L) score of ≥2 were included in the study. SMAD3 gene rs6494629 C/T polymorphism was determined using PCR- RFLP method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results. Case and control groups were homogeneous by age and sex. There was a significant association between SMAD3 gene rs6494629 C/T polymorphism and knee OA in the <50 years age group. Patients with TT geno- type and T allele were at risk for developing knee OA (p <0.05), but this association did not ap- pear within the >50 years age group. Conclusion. Our findings suggested that knee OA in the younger age is predominantly affected by genetic factors, whereas knee OA in older age group is influenced by other factors.