Production of Bioplastic from Avocado Seed Starch Reinforced with Microcrystalline Cellulose from Sugar Palm Fibers
Harahap, Mara Bangun
Ginting, Muhammad Hendra S
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The influence of microcrystalline cellulose derived from sugar palm fibers and glycerol on the mechanical properties of bioplastics from avocado seed starch was studied. Sugar palm fibers underwent alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis with HCl to produce microcrystalline cellulose. Bioplastic was successfully fabricated through solution casting technique. It was prepared from avocado seed starch and reinforced with MCC from sugar palm fibers with composition ratio of 6:4; 7:3, 8:2, and 9:1 (w/w). Glycerol functioned as plasticizer with variation of 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 (v/w of starch). Microcrystalline cellulose was dissolved in NaOH 5% (w/v) before it was mixed with the plasticized starch. Microcrystalline cellulose degree of crystallinity determined by X-Ray Diffraction was 97.5%. Morphological analysis was done with Scanning Electron Microscope given that the isolated microcrystalline cellulose from sugar palm fibers are rod-like shaped with diameter of 5.55-9.44 μm and crystal size of 25.08 nm. Mechanical properties of bioplastic were determined by tensile strength and elongation at break analysis where it is given that the best condition of bioplastics obtained is from 7:3 ratio with 0.2 (v/w) glycerol added which is 2.74 MPa for tensile strength and 3.16% for elongation at break. FT-IR analysis showed the functional groups of bioplastics, majority of O-H groups, that was found from the addition of microcrystalline cellulose that represented substantial hydrogen bonds.