Utilization of Jackfruit Seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in the Preparing of Bioplastics by Plasticizer Ethylene Glycol and Chitosan Filler
Harahap, Mara Bangun
Ginting, Muhammad Hendra Sahputra
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Bioplastic is the plastic that is naturally decomposed with the help of microorganisms. The use of starch as the main ingredient for the plastic manufacture has a great potential, because in Indonesia, there are varieties of starch crops and one of them is jackfruit. This study was aimed to determine the effect of chitosan and ethylene glycol in the physicochemical properties of bioplastic which was made by utilizing jackfruit seeds. In the manufacture of bioplastic, the ratio of jackfruit seeds: chitosan was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (w/w), while the concentrations of ethylene glycol were varied as 20 mL/ g, 25 mL/ g, 30 mL/ g, 35 mL/ g, and 40 mL/ g (v/w). The product was physically and chemically analyzed by using RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), tensile strength measurement, and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). From the RVA analysis of jackfruit seeds starch, the gelatinization temperature was obtained as 88.82 C with the peak of viscosity of 3276.5 cP. Characterization of FT-IR spectra of the bioplastics with chitosan and ethylene glycol indicated O-H and N-H groups. The best conditions for bioplastics tensile strength was in the ratio of jackfruit seed starch and chitosan (w/w) with 7: 3 and a plasticizer of 0.35 mL/ g at 28.271 MPa. The results of mechanical test was supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis that showing bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer ethylene glycol has a smooth and soft surface and also was slightly void.