Potential of Endogenous Cell-Based Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury
Loe, Michael Lumintang
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a disruption in the normal function of the brain due to an injury following a trauma, which can potentially cause severe physical, cognitive, and emotional impairment. It causes disability, death and huge economic losses in various countries of the world. Current guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injuries are primarily supportive, with an emphasis on surveillance (i.e. intracranial pressure) and preventive measures to reduce morbidity and mortality. The primary injury to the brain initiates secondary injury cascades consisting of multiple complex biochemical responses of the brain that significantly influence the overall severity of the brain damage, interfere the regeneration process capability which eventually becomes clinical sequelae. Cell-based therapy have generated enthusiasm as a possible treatment option for traumatic brain injury. Neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) that survive in certain parts of the brain, give the brain the ability to produce new neurons and glia. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG). Some agent has a neuromodulatory effect, which has a modulation effect on the expression and activation of the BDNF / TrkB system in the hippocampus area which can be potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders in TBI.