Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Immature and Mature Nipa Leaves (Nypa fruticans, Wurmb) Against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli
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Abstract : Background: Nipa (Nypa fruticans, Wurmb) is a species of Arecaceae, has been used to treat stomach ache, diabetes mellitus and febrifuge traditionally and give satisfactory results. Objective: The aim of this research was intended to know the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of immature and mature Nipa leaves against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods: Simplex were characterized, phytochemical screening and extracted by a maceration method using ethanol 96% as solvent. An ethanolic extract of immature and mature Nipa leaves was tested the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli which was conducted with in vitro agar diffusion method using the paper disk. Results: The characterization of simplex of immature and mature Nipa leaves (Nypa fruticans, Wurmb) obtained water content respectively 5.64% and 5.81%. The content of water soluble respectively 19,27% and 22.30%. Content of ethanol soluble respectively 16.32% and 18.05%. Total ash content, respectively 6.36% and 6.49%. Content of acid insoluble ash, respectively 1.58% and 1.61%. Phytochemical screening of simplex and ethanolic extract immature and mature Nipa leaves showed the presence of steroids/triterpenoids, flavonoid, glycosides, saponins and tannins. The result of antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of immature and mature Nipa leaves can inhibit the growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 100 mg/mL; 75mg/mL with the effective diameter of the inhibition area respectively 14,27 mm and 14,10 mm; bacteria Escherichia coli at the same concentration 75 mg/mL, with the effective diameter of the inhibition area respectively 14,10 mm and 14,80 mm. Conclusion: Based on the results, ethanolic extract of mature Nipa leaves are more effective to inhibit the growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than the ethanolic extract of immature Nipa leaves.