The Effects of the Addition of Alkanolamide on Carbon Blacks Filled Natural Rubber Compounds
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The effects of the addition of alkanolamide (ALK) on cure characteristics and filler dispersion of the two types of carbon black (CB) filled natural rubber (NR) compounds were investigated. The N-550 and N-220 types of CB were utilised, and each of them was incorporated separately into NR compound with a fixed loading, 30.0 phr. The ALK was synthesized from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin and diethanolamine; and incorporated into the CB filled NR compounds as an additive ingredient. The ALK loadings were 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 phr. It was found that ALK could function as a secondary accelerator and also an internal plasticiser. As a secondary accelerator; ALK decreased the scorch and cure times of the N-550 and N-220 CBs filled NR compounds. The higher the ALK loading, the shorter the scorch and cure times. As an internal plasticiser; ALK decreased the minimum torque and improved the dispersions of both types of CB in NR phases. At a similar ALK loading; N-220 exhibited higher cure rate, minimum and maximum torques and torque difference values. However, degree of filler dispersion of N-220 was poorer.