Relationship Between Childhood Blood Pressure and Birth Weight
Ramayani, Oke Rina
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Background Low birth weight has been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Some studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children with low birth weight. Objective To assess blood pressure differences in primary school students who had low and normal birth weights. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 170 children aged 6 to 12 years in March 2011 at a Medan primary school, North Sumatera. Blood pressure was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. A parental questionnaire was used to collect information on birth weight. Data were analyzed by student’s T-test for numerical data and Spearman’s correlation test for a relationship between blood pressure and birth weight. Results The subjects consisted of 85 children with low birth weight and 85 children with normal birth weight. The mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were significantly higher in children with low birth weight than those with normal birth weight [SBP: 106.7 vs. 99.8 mmHg, respectively, (P=0.0001); and DBP: 69.2 vs. 63.5 mmHg, respectively, (P=0.0001)]. There were relationships between elevated SBP and DBP and low birth weight, as indicated by correlation coefficient [r=-0.365 and r=-0.425, respectively, (P=0.0001)]. Conclusion Blood pressure is significantly higher in children with low birth weight than in those with normal birth weight. Birth weight was inversely related both to systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:117-20].