Chaiyanara, Paitoon M.
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Theory of phoneme is a phonological theory well-known at the end of the nineteenth century (1870) whose objective is to find out the abstract representation of phonemes of a certain language. In order to find out whether a phone is a phoneme, a phonemic analysis rule is used which formulates: (1) mutually exclusive environment of complementary distribution known as an allophone of the same phoneme, (2) a phone in a minimal pair known as a different phoneme, such as /p/ and /b/, (3) a phone in an analogous environment, such as /Z/, (4) a phone as a free variation is not a different phoneme, but a variation of a phoneme of /c/ that phoneme /č/ and /čh/ are variations of phoneme /č/. A prosodic phoneme is recognized by a toneme and a chroneme. Daniel Jones consonantal and vowel analysis rule proven unable to solve all problems dealing with consonantal Trubetskoy and Jacobson made a breakthrough in analyzing a phoneme through a distinctive feature and opposition. The components analyzed are: opposition system, bilateral and multilateral opposition system, prepositional opposition system, and emoted opposition including the formation of neutralized phoneme and phoneme archie in German.