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Title: Konvergensi Dan Divergensi Dalam Dialek-Dialek Melayu Asahan
Authors: Dwi, Widayati
Advisors: Sibarani, Robert
Naibaho, Jawasi
Sibarani, Berlin
Issue Date: 14-Aug-2010
Abstract: The multiethnic situation found in Asahan indirectly has formed a multilingual or multidialectal community. Since the multilingual or multidialectal community live in the area whose population are majority the native speakers of Malay, this condition has made the non-native speakers of Malay do their best to master Asahan Malay Language (which, henceforth, is called BMA). They converged and diverged with the local Malay speech through the contact of language. This problems is answered through a study of dialectology and sociolinguistic because the purpose of this study is (1) to describe the segmental system of the dialects in Asahan, (2) to describe the varieties of the existing dialects in Asahan resulted from convergence and divergence, (3) to describe the factors that cause the convergence and divergence in Malay dialects in Asahan, and (4) to describe the innovative and conservative forms in the Asahan Malay dialects. In the attempt to achieve the purposed, the identity methods such as articulatory phonetic identity method with organs of speech as its determiner, pragmatic identity method with the ones we talk to as its determiner, and translational identity method with the other languages or dialects as its determiner. These three methods were explained through equalizing technique and differentiating technique. In addition, a top down approach is also employed in the diachronic analysis Based on the segmental study, it was found out that there are 5 vowel segments in the dialect of Tanjungbalai (DTB), such as /i, u, a, , and / and 6 vowel segments in the dialect of Batubara (DBB), such as /i, u, a, , , and /. In DTB and DBB were found out 19 consonant segments, such as /p, b, t, d, c, j, k, g, , s, h, m, n, , , l, , w, and j/. There are 5 vowel segments in Batak Language (BBT), such as /i, u, a, e, and o/ and 6 vowel segments in Javanese Language (BJW), such as /i, u, a, e, , and o/. In BBT was found out 14 consonants, such as /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, g, k, , r, h/ and 20 consonants in BJW, such as /b, p, m, w, d, t, d, t, s, n, l, c, j, , j, g, k, , r, dan h/. Dialectal variation in Asahan appeared because of the existence of convergence and divergence in the community’s interaction. The attempt to accommodate the speech when interacting resulted in convergence and divergence in dialect. This convergence and divergence resulted in imitation, interference, and integration. Based on the three processes, the other dialects such as Batak Malay Asahan Dialect (DBMA) and Javanese Malay Asahan Dialect (DMJA) were found in Asahan. Based on the segmental system of DTB, DBB, BBT, and BJW, it was found out that there are 5 vowels in DBMA, such as /i, u, a, , dan / which are represented into 9 vocoids segmental sounds because of primary articulation, such as [i], [], [u], [], [a], [], [], [ε], and [e]. There are 6 vowels in DMJA, such as /i, u, a, , e, and / which are represented into 9 vocoids, such as [i], [], [u], [], [a], [], [], [], and [ε]. There are 18 consonants in DMBA, such as /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, c, , y, g, k, , w, r, h/ and in DMJA, such as /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, c, , y, g, k, , w, r, h/. The both 18 consonants are represented precisely the same as their original segments, except the segment of consonant /k/ which is represented as [k] and [], /b/ which is represented as [b] and [p], /d/ which is represented as [d] and [t], and /h/ which is represented as [h] and []. A set of sound correspondence which is represented as [a ⋍ ] is found in DTB, DBB, DBMA, and DMJA and the correspondence is also found in affixes. For example, ba()(r)-} ⋍ {b()(r)-}, {ba()(r)-an} ⋍ {b()(r)-an}, {basi-an} ⋍ {bsi-an}, {maN-} ⋍ {mN-}, {paN-} ⋍ {pN-}, {ta-} ⋍ {t-}, {ka-an} ⋍ {k-an}, and {sa-} ⋍ {s-}. The sentence patterns found in the four dialects in Asahan are VSO/VOS and SVO. The pattern VSO/VOS is especially found in DTB, DBB, and DMBA, while the pattern SVO is found in DMJA. Convergence and divergence are caused by the intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. Intralinguistic factor consists of assimilation, sound deletion, sound addition, segment change, sound replacement, and sound weakening/lenisi processes. The five processes are formulated in 15 phonological rules which consist of characteristic changes, delition, insertion, transformational, combination, variabel, and replacement rules. Extralinguistic factor consists of geographical, migration, historical, social, and phsychological factors. The comparison of the four dialects shows that there are inovative and conservative vowel and consonantal reflections. Most vowels are reflected inovatively than consonants. The consonants which is innovatively reflected are /*h/, /*k/, /*/, and /*r/. The innovative reflection of vowels causes innovative lexemes.
Abstract (other language): Situasi multietnis yang terdapat di Asahan secara tidak langsung membentuk masyarakat yang multilingual atau multidialek. Karena masyarakat yang multilingual/multidialek berada dalam wilayah yang penuturnya mayoritas berbahasa Melayu, kondisi ini memacu masyarakat yang bukan penutur Melayu untuk menguasai bahasa Melayu Asahan (selanjutnya disebut BMA). Melalui kontak/sentuh bahasa mereka berkonvergensi dan berdivergensi dengan tuturan Melayu setempat. Akibatnya, akan muncul variasi dialek. Persoalan ini dijawab melalui penelitian dialektologi dan sosiolinguistik karena tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk (1) mendeskripsikan sistem segmental dialek-dialek di Asahan, (2) mendeskripsikan variasi dialek yang muncul di Asahan akibat adanya konvergensi dan divergensi, (3) mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya konvergensi dan divergensi dalam dialek-dialek Melayu di Asahan, dan (4) mendeskripsikan bentuk inovatif dan konservatif dalam dialek-dialek Melayu Asahan. Dalam upaya pencapaian tujuan tersebut, diterapkan metode padan, yaitu metode padan artikulatoris dengan alat penentunya organ wicara, metode padan pragmatis dengan alat penentunya mitra wicara, dan metode padan translasional dengan alat penentunya bahasa atau dialek lain. Ketiga metode ini dijabarkan dalam teknik hubung banding menyamakan dan hubung banding membedakan. Selain itu, pendekatan dari atas ke bawah juga dilakukan dalam analisis diakronis. Berdasarkan kajian segmental, ditemukan bahwa dalam dialek Tanjungbalai (DTB) terdapat 5 segmen vokal, yaitu, /i, u, a, , dan /. Dalam dialek Batubara (DBB) terdapat 6 segmen vokal, yaitu /i, u, a, , , dan /. DTB dan DBB memiliki jumlah konsonan yang sama masing-masing 19 segmen konsonan, yaitu /p, b, t, d, c, j, k, g, , s, h, m, n, , , l, , w, dan j/. Dalam Bahasa Batak (BBT) terdapat lima segmen vokal, yaitu, /i, u, a, e, dan o/. Dalam bahasa Jawa (BJW) terdapat enam segmen vokal, yaitu /i, u, a, e, , dan o/. Segmen konsonan BBT ada 14, yaitu /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, g, k, , r, h/ dan dalam BJW terdapat 20 segmen konsonan, yaitu /b, p, m, w, d, t, d, t, s, n, l, c, j, , j, g, k, , r, dan h/. Variasi dialek di Asahan muncul karena adanya konvergensi dan divergensi dalam interaksi masyarakat. Dari konvergensi dan divergensi ini muncul wujud imitasi, interferensi, dan integrasi. Dari ketiga proses tersebut ditemukan adanya dialek lain di Asahan, yaitu dialek Melayu Batak Asahan (DMBA) dan dialek Melayu Jawa Asahan (DMJA). Atas dasar sistem segmental DTB, DBB, BBT, dan BJW ditemukan bahwa dalam DMBA terdapat lima segmen vokal, yaitu /i, u, a, , dan / yang direpresentasikan ke dalam sembilan bunyi segmental vokoid akibat artikulasi primer, yaitu [i] dan []; [u] dan []; [a] dan []; []; [ε] dan [e]. Dalam DMJA terdapat enam segmen vokal, yaitu /i, u, a, , e, dan / yang direpresentasikan ke dalam sembilan bunyi segmental vokoid, yaitu [i] dan []; [u] dan []; [a] dan []; []; []; [ε]. Segmen konsonan dalam DMBA ada delapan belas, yaitu /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, c, , y, g, k, , w, r, h/ dan dalam DMJA /b, p, m, d, t, s, n, l, j, c, , y, g, k, , w, r, h/. Kedelapan belas segmen konsonan tersebut direpresentasikan persis sama dengan segmen asalnya, kecuali segmen konsonan /k/ yang direpresentasikan sebagai [k, dan ], segmen konsonan /b/ direpresentasikan sebagai [b dan p], segmen konsonan /d/ direpresentasikan [d dan t], dan segmen konsonan /h/ direpresentasikan sebagai [h dan ]. Dalam DTB, DBB, DMBA, dan DMJA terdapat perangkat korespondensi bunyi yang diwujudkan dengan [a ⋍ ] dan pada afiks terdapat korespondensi ba()(r)-} ⋍ {b()(r)-}, {ba()(r)-an} ⋍ {b()(r)-an}, {basi-an} ⋍ {bsi-an}, {maN-} ⋍ {mN-}, {paN-} ⋍ {pN-}, {ta-} ⋍ {t-}, {ka-an} ⋍ {k-an}, dan {sa-} ⋍ {s-}. Pola kalimat yang ditemukan dalam empat dialek di Asahan adalah pola VSO/VOS dan SVO. Pola VSO/VOS terutama ditemukan pada penutur DTB, DBB, dan DMBA, sedangkan pola SVO ditemukan dalam DMJA. Konvergensi dan divergensi disebabkan oleh faktor intralinguistik dan ekstralinguistik. Faktor intralinguistik ini meliputi proses asimilasi, proses pelesapan bunyi, proses penambahan bunyi, proses pergantian bunyi, proses perubahan segmen, dan proses pelemahan bunyi. Keenam proses tersebut diformulasikan dalam wujud lima belas kaidah fonologis yang terdiri atas kaidah perubahan ciri, kaidah pelesapan, kaidah penyisipan, kaidah transformasional, kaidah perpaduan, kaidah bervariabel, dan kaidah pergantian. Faktor ekstralinguistik adalah faktor luar bahasa yang menyebabkan terjadinya konvergensi dan divergensi dalam bahasa. Faktor ekstralinguistik meliputi faktor geografi, faktor migrasi, faktor historis, faktor sosial, dan faktor psikologis. Perbandingan keempat dialek menunjukkan adanya refleks vokal dan konsonan yang inovatif dan konservatif. Vokal umumnya direflekskan secara inovatif daripada konsonan. Konsonan yang direflekskan secara inovatif terdapat pada konsonan /*h/, /*k/, /*/, dan /*r/. Refleks yang inovatif pada vokal menyebabkan leksem-leksem yang direflekskan pun mengalami inovasi.
Keywords: convergence
divergence
variation
dialects
innovation
retention
URI: http://repository.usu.ac.id/handle/123456789/19560
Appears in Collections:PD - Linguistics

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Abstract.pdfAbstract363.39 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Chapter I.pdfChapter I368.89 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Chapter II.pdfChapter II425.96 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Chapter III-IX.pdfChapter III-IX1.34 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Reference.pdfReference336.67 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Appendix.pdfAppendix438.54 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
 

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