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Title: Ensefalitis pada Infeksi HIV
Authors: Iqbal, Kiki Mohammad
Ritarwan, Kiking
Zein, Umar
Issue Date: 28-Jul-2010
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide pandemic affecting virtually all population groups, with espesially rapid spread in developing countries. Transmission occurs through homosexual or heterosexual contact, exposure to contaminated blood/blood products or perinatally. Clinically, neurologic abnormalities are noted in only about one-third of patients with Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), but at autopsy the nervous system is affected in nearly all of them. Encephalitis is a complication from HIV infection, regarded as primary complication when the pathological changes are the direct result of HIV alone, or secondary in the case of opportunistic infections. Laboratory examination of HIV infection/AIDS are divided into: antibodi and antigen HIV examination, immunitas state examination and examination of opportunistic infection and neoplasm. Management HIV infection/AIDS included medication, nursing care/rehabilitation and education. Medication of patients with HIV infection/AIDS are aimed for HIV viral (antiretroviral drugs), opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasm, immunitas state, and for symptomatic and supportive. Natural course of AIDS have not known certainly. Recurrent HIV infection and existence the other infections cause illness progressiveness.
Abstract (other language): Infeksi Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) bersifat pandemik seluruh dunia yang menyerang seluruh kelompok populasi, terutama cepat menyebar pada negara-negara berkembang. Penyebaran/transmisi infeksi HIV terjadi melalui kontak homoseksual atau heteroseksual, kontaminasi darah/produk darah atau secara perinatal.Secara klinis, kelainan neurologi hanya dijumpai pada sepertiga penderita dengan Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), tapi secara autospi Sistem Saraf Pusat (SSP) dijumpai kelainan pada hampir seluruh penderita AIDS. Ensefalitis pada infeksi HIV termasuk komplikasi dari infeksi HIV, baik komplikasi primer oleh karena infeksi HIV itu sendiri ataupun komplikasi sekunder oleh karena keadaan immunodefisiensi (infeksi opportunistik). Umumnya pemeriksaan laboratorium untuk HIV/AIDS dibedakan atas: pemeriksaan antibodi (Ab) dan antigen (Ag) HIV, pemeriksaan status immunitas, dan pemeriksaan terhadap infeksi opportunistik dan keganasan. Penatalaksanaan HIV/AIDS terdiri dari pengobatan, perawatan/rehabilitasi dan edukasi. Pengobatan pada pengidap HIV/penderita AIDS ditujukan terhadap: virus HIV (obat antiretroviral), infeksi opportunistik, kanker sekunder, status kekebalan tubuh, serta simptomatis dan suportif. Perjalanan alamiah penyakit AIDS belum diketahui dengan pasti. Diperkirakan bahwa infeksi HIV yang berulang dan pemajanan terhadap infeksi-infeksi lain mengakibatkan progresivitas penyakit.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
ISSN: 0216-325x
Appears in Collections:Vol. 40 No. 1 Maret 2007

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