Bahasa Dan Komunikasi: Suatu Tinjauan Sosio-Psikolinguistik
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This paper deals with the description of language (especially spoken language) and communication based on socio psycholinguistics points of view. Spoken language was based on rule-governed structuring of meaningless sounds (phonemes) into basic units of meaning (morphemes), which are further structured by morphological rules and by syntactic rules into sentences. The meanings of words, sentences and entire utterances are determined by semantic rules. Together, these rules represent grammar. It is because shared knowledge of morphological, syntactic and semantic rules permits the generation and comprehension of almost limitless meaningful utterances that language is such powerful communication medium. In general, the socio psycholinguistics tends to be more concerned with how something is said than with what is said – with speech style rather than speech content – although this is changing with the advent of discourse analysis. Paralanguage refers to all non-linguistic accompaniments of speech, such as volume, stress, speed, tone of voice, pauses, sighs, etc.