Penguasaan Atas Pengelolaan Hutan Adat Oleh Masyarakat Hukum Adat (Mukim) Di Provinsi Aceh
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Hundreds years ago, there were indigenous people communities in Indonesia which have own characteristic controlling their adat forest. However, the recognition of indigenous people couldn’t be found in many acts and government regulations in the past. Between indigenous people and adat forests are two things that cannot be separated. Mukim is Aceh’s indigenous people controlling and managing adat forests. The purposes of this research are: (1) to find out and to describe the acts and regulations concerning forestry and indigenous people, (2) to describe characteristics of Aceh forests and forestry policies in Aceh Province, (3) to describe the control of adat forests managements by indigenous people in Aceh (mukim). This research applies analytical descriptive method by approaching normative and empirical (non-doctrinal) law research. The data are gathered by literature and field research. Literature research is conducted to get secondary data by analyzing primary, secondary and tertiary law sources. While, field research is done to obtain primary data, by interviewing respondents and informants. Field research is conducted in several districts in Aceh Province, such as: Aceh Besar, Pidie, Aceh Jaya, and Aceh Barat, which determined by purposive sampling technique. Data are analyzed by qualitative and analytic descriptive. Regulations about Forestry had been enacted since the Netherlands Hindia era especially applied to Java and Madura. Whereas outside Java and Madura, adat laws were applied to them. This dualism of law occurred until Indonesia had its independence. As well as in the era of the Netherlands Hindia, of the Old Governance and of the New Era regimes there couldn’t be found many acts and regulations concerning indigenous people. The recognition on the existence of indigenous people and adat forests could be found in acts and regulations which enacted after the era of Reformation. Most of Aceh’s forest is conservation areas that become deforestation because of illegal logging. Nowadays, the forestry policies in Aceh refer to the Forestry Act, the Aceh Governance Act, and the Aceh’s Governor Instruction on Moratorium Logging. Mukim is indigenous people in Aceh which possessed governance authority, settlement of disputes and control of their adat forests (ulayat) management. Mukim has legal system and local wisdom in controlling their adat forests management namely advices and prohibition (taboo), institutions and indigenous cultures. It is recommended that the government in making every policy should consider the existence of indigenous people including their traditional rights. In addition, Government Regulation on Adat Forest and Indigenous People are also needed to follow up section 67 of the Forestry Act. In determining the status of forest, it is suggested that the forests should become: (1) private forests, (2) adat forests, and (3) state forests. Moreover, government of districts/cities at Aceh Province should publish the forestry policies base on mukim. Furthermore, the necessary of forming qanun’s district/municipality about mukim governance that mention the recognition of existences of mukim adat forests (ulayat). Revitalization and strengthening of mukim governance which lead by imeum mukim and adat forest institutions which lead by pawang glee are also important to be conducted.
- PD - Ilmu Hukum